April 7, 2019, marks the hundredth anniversary of Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles — the infamous war-guilt clause. Although the treaty was not signed until June 28, the Supreme Council approved the notorious article on April 7, 1919. The authors were John Maynard Keynes, & John Foster Dulles.

The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected because of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.

Bucket with an Uranian Handle.

Points seven and eight stipulate, “Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored,” and “All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored.” The term “restored” is significant, for it meant France and Belgium could seek compensation from Germany for the invasion.


The formal Date, June 28, 1919

The formal signing was 28 June 1919 at the Palace of Versailles, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand which directly led to World War I

Bucket with an Uranian Handle
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