Albert Edward, Prince of Wales and the son and heir of Queen Victoria was a notorious rake. His parents recognized this when he was very young and arranged a marriage hoping to keep him from getting into further trouble. The wife chosen for him was the eldest daughter of Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg and her mother was Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Other siblings were George (George I of Greece), Dagmar (later Empress of all the Russias via her marriage to Czar Alexander III, Thyra (Crown Princess of Hanover) and Prince Valdemar of Denmark.
Alexandra Caroline Mary Charlotte Louisa Julia of Denmark was born in Copenhagen on December 1, 1844 at 6:15 in the morning. Her rising symbol made her a good choice “fasting pilgrims outside the castle of the king” at 18 Scorpio 57 as she and Edward spent much of their lives apart — her in Sandringham and he in London.
On March 10, 1863 at St. George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle, Edward and Alexandra were married, her wearing a magnificent gown by Worth of Paris. They had six children including Prince Albert Victor.
From the top left are Daisy Greville, Lilly Langtry, and Jennie Jerome. The bottom two portraits are of Agnes Keyser, and Alice Keppel.
Throughout their marriage, Edward had several well known mistresses — the actress Daisy Greville, herself the descendant of two of England’s King’s paramours and for whom it is thought Daisy of The Great Gatsby was named ; Lily Langtry the actress, Agnes Keyser, the only unmarried woman during their affair, American Jennie Jerome the future mother of Winston Churchill and whom Alexandra was the most fond; and most famous of all Alice Keppel, the great grandmother of the Duchess of Cornwall, Camilla Parker Bowles. Despite her well known possessiveness, Queen Alexandra allowed Mrs. Keppel to visit King Edward VII on his deathbed.
She had a scar (Saturn 03 Aquarius 17 in the 2nd, Taurus rules the neck) and wore high necked gowns or jeweled necklaces similar to her portrait above. On Edward’s coronation day she wore the gorgeous Dagmar necklace, especially made for the occasion (see the closeup below). She died at Sandringham House on November 20, 1925 from a heart attack and was buried in Windsor next to Edward, having outlived him by 15 years.
Dhillion has gotten a lot of recent press because of defense of whistleblowers vs Big Tech which she terms as the most prevalent threat to our liberties. Recently this came to the fore with Google denying Claremont College, Claremont, California, the use of their platform. Google later reversed itself and said it was a mistake. Tucker Carlson interviewed her on the issue asking “How many times have we heard this from some big tech company or another when caught silencing conservatives?”
Dhillon replied: “Well we hear it every other day and Tucker, I am not delusional. People are actually discriminating against conservatives every other day in this way and they’re gas-lighting us by saying ‘oh it was just a mistake, you imagined that.’” This highlights the problem that many see that Google, Facebook, Tumblr are not private platforms but public utilities like the electric, water and gas companies (the telephone company, AT&T and its subsidiaries, once fell into this hole but was broken up in 1984); this debate is far from over.
Harmeet is a first generation American. She was born in Chandigarh, Punjab, India to two Sikh parents on October 2nd, 1968 about 4 am, giving her a Virgo rising and the [HS] symbol of “2 crones and a maiden in telepathic conversation,” highlighting her ability to see and recognize new methods of intellectual conversation. Her parents emigrated here to further her father’s medical training — he is an orthopedic surgeon.
Ms Dhillion has been married 3 times and has no children. She is the former vice chairwoman of the California Republican Party, and the National Committeewoman of the Republican National Committee for California. Despite that she has supported fellow Indian, but non-Sikh, Kamala Harris and her senatorial run and is on the board of the Northern California chapter of the ACLU.
Senator Harris has not returned the favour in supporting Harmeet and Sikhs during her tenure as California’s Attorney General. In 2011 she upheld the Prohibition against state correctional officers from wearing beards for religious reasons, even though exceptions were given for medical purposes. The Sikh community has asked the Senator to apologize.
Harmeet is the senior partner in Dhillon Law Group Inc.
Being a Sikh
Sikhism is a modern monotheistic religion, created in the 16 century in Punjab India by Guru Nanak who preached a message of love and understanding , criticizing the rituals of the Hindus and Muslims. Guru Nanak passed on his enlightened leadership of this new religion to nine successive Gurus. The final living Guru, Guru Gobind Singh died in 1708.
“I observe neither Hindu fasting nor the ritual of the Muslim Ramadan month; Him I serve who at the last shall save.
The Lord of universe of the Hindus, Gosain and Allah to me are one; From Hindus and Muslims have I broken free. I perform neither Kaaba pilgrimage nor at bathing spots worship.
One sole Lord I serve, and no other. I perform neither the Hindu worship nor the Muslim prayer; To the Sole Formless Lord in my heart I bow.
We neither are Hindus nor Muslims; Our body and life belong to the One Supreme Being who alone is both Ram and Allah for us.”
Guru Arjan Dev, Guru Granth Sahib, Raga Bhairon pg. 1136
Recently I have been reading A History of Modern Poetry by David Perkins, Harvard University Press, and rediscovered many a familiar poet that I haven’t read in ages. John Davidson was one though I probably could not have told you more than he was “poet with Eliot connections” but that was about all.
Luckily Prof. Perkins filled in the details and gave a stanza from one of Davidson’s better poems, 30 Bob a Week. Of course doing a lot of poets, like a lot of anything is tedious, but some of the minors peppered with the greats should prove interesting fare.
Davidson and eliot
John Davidson was the son of a Presbyterian minister and born in Barhead, Scotland. He wrote for several newspapers but in the 1890’s devoted himself to verse. He was married with 2 children. He had a rather strange compulsion about “getting cancer” and when he did, he left his wife and his family and went to Cornwall to commit suicide. He was buried at sea with another strange request: his poems could not be anthologized until the copyright ran out. Needless to say, this left his wife and children penniless.
Thomas Stearns Eliot, the Great American poet, liked Davidson because the Scot was one of the first “Moderns” to write in slang. This is highlighted by Davidson’s moon in the 3rd house at 15 Scorpio 38 — making his writing more attuned to sound than prose — as a good poet should be but the kicker is it is opposite via a translation of light (from Mars) to Uranus in Taurus making that sound not high and literary but common and offbeat i.e. slang. The Midheaven at 26 Taurus 05 is conjunct and Venus partile, suggesting as he traveled he squirreled away bits and bobs of language for future use.
Still that stellium in the 9th house is troubling even with Jupiter there with his strong belief in nothing, that the ethereal netherworld of thought, philosophy and poesy that he did embrace left him empty. The fixed signs near the 10th, help fasten him some but with only the Moon opposite and that with Mars only supported his very bleak nihilistic view (sextile Saturnin the 11th).
Merlin and Kassandra
His Yod from Mars to Saturn holds out little promise, pointing as it does to 07 Sagittarius and the Asteroid Kassandra from Homer’s great poem the Iliad as she portends the Trojans falls if they allow the gift from Greeks within their walls.
That is supported by another wizard of fortune, the fabled English Merlin , a fictitious character from the Bard Geoffrey’s Historia Regum Britanniae. Merlin is well known for his many prophecies of the One and Future King of England, Arthur and the Holy Grail, and in Davidson’s chart is right next to his ascendant. Fatalistic to the core, Davidson like astrologer Jerome Cardan had always feared the hand of cancer as it foretold death and when he received a diagnosis of the curse, fled to Cornwall to make it so.
Henry Dreyfuss is not a household name, but his designs are objects that fill and beautify our homes like the Royal Quiet de Luxe Typewriter, the Westclox Big Ben alarm clock, the Western Electric desk, vacuum cleaners for Hoover and the AT&T desk and Princess line phones, the round thermostat for Honeywell (cloned by Nest though still in use). He lead the forefront of American industrial for decades until his death in 1972.
Dreyfuss’s name has a second “s” because his family were German Jews. French Jews Julia Louis Dreyfus of Seinfeld and Veep fame have just one. He was born on March 2, 1904, New York City, little else is known about his parents or family. A glaring oversight, that he is not part of the Jones 1000.
At the Start
In 1921 at Dreyfuss designed sets for stage presentations at a Broadway motion-picture theatre by 1927 a store commissioned him to study its merchandise, assess its attractiveness, and make drawings indicating improvements that the manufacturers could make. He made the study but refused to undertake the design because disagree with his overguiding approach — that design is part of the process and not “paste” on design afterwards; most notably Steve Jobs of Apple agreed.
Industrial designers were often trained traditionally as architects, now called the visual arts profession, and now work as part of a larger creative team. That was not true in Dreyfuss’s time where he typically worked alone, and brought his designs to the manufacturing & marketing teams for review. His concern was to to produce products where “form followed function” as in the credo of the great American architect Louis Sullivan (born September 2 1856 Boston, Massachusetts) and his famed student Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8 1867 Wisconsin)
Unlike Sullivan and Wright, Dreyfuss worked mainly on appliances or “things” and not buildings. Nonetheless, he kept the same idea of the Chicago School in mind — that the designs while stressing utility should be pleasing so that people would use and enjoy them. He said that “when the point of contact between the product and people becomes a point of friction, then the industrial designer has failed.”
His bookThe Measure of Mancontains extensive data on the human body and its movements. His approach to industrial design is described in his book Designing for People(1955, 2nd ed. 1967). An important theorist in the field of human-factors engineering, or ergonomics, Designing for People published also that year, discusses his service-(focal determinator Moon in the 6th house of service and serving) oriented philosophy.
On Oct. 5, 1972, Dreyfuss, along with his business partner cum wife, Doris Marks Dreyfuss, died of carbon monoxide poisoning from the fumes of their car parked the garage of their Pasadena California home. They had left a left explaining their actions so homicide would not be suspected and that their family doctor be notified and witness their bodies. The Dreyfuss’s reasoning was Doris’s terminal illness, found the sympathetic Pisces (Pisces 27 rising “a harvest moon”) in affinity with her pain and heart sick over her coming loss; they had 3 children.
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I got interested in Lara watching Netflix’s Narcos, he was a welcome bolt of fresh air. The show is a real blast of the 1980’s past as the production team did a fine job and many of the actors were good as well. So here is a late obit to Mr. Rodrigo Lara for a job well done and life cut far too short. The header picture is of the team called The New Liberalism. Mr. Lara and his wife are third and fourth from the left.
The New Yorker
from the New Yorker magazine, March 8, 2019 …. Pedro Escobar wanted to be president of Colombia but he was soon denounced as a gangster by Colombia’s justice minister, Rodrigo Lara Bonilla. Escobar fought back, falsely accusing Lara of being in the pocket of narcos. Then an influential newspaper editor named Guillermo Cano (August 12 1985-December 16, 1986) of El Espectador, dug up an old news story showing that Escobar had been arrested, 7 years prior, for the possession of thirty-nine pounds of cocaine. This resulted in Escobar being ejected from Congress, and an F.B.I. investigation; Pedro went underground.
In March, 1984, Colombian and American agents raided the cartel’s headquarters, Tranquilandia, a huge complex that contained at least seven laboratories, various airstrips, and more than a billion dollars’ worth of cocaine. A month later, two of Escobar’s men, riding a motorbike, ambushed Lara Bonilla’s car in Bogotá, and killed him instantly.
The NY Times Obit
Senor Lara Bonilla had begun an energetic campaign against Colombia’s drug dealers, and recent press reports said he had received death threats from the drug gangs.
Lara was killed as two gunmen on a motorcycle ambushed the limousine of Justice Minister Rodrigo Lara Bonilla on May 1 1984 and killed him on a street in northern Bogota. Security officials said the minister’s bodyguards, who were following his car in a jeep, pursued the gunmen, killing one of the men on the motorcycle and capturing the other. (This was shown in the series for his own safety, was appointed as the Ambassador to Czechoslovakia, but was gunned down by Pablo’s men as he was heading towards the airport to leave the country. )
The Caracol radio station identified the captured suspect as Bayron Velasquez, 20 years old, and quoted police sources as saying he told detectives he had been paid $20,000 to kill Mr. Lara Bonilla. They said the limousine had slowed because of traffic when the gunmen approached and opened fire, hitting the minister three times in the head and four times in the chest and throat. The chauffeur drove the fatally wounded minister to the Shaio Clinic, where he died 10 minutes later, according to the officials.
The Lara Chart
Mr. Lara’s ascendant is 08 Aquarius with his Moon right nearby at 07 Aquarius. They are opposite Saturn at 01 Leo and a Mercury at 05 Leo giving him a fast Mental Chemistry according to Marc Jones. This and the Moon just opposite would give him quick responses to his insightful intuition that allowed him to sense what would happen and jump nimbly to logical conclusions.
Jupiter in his native house in the 9th at Libra 22 gave him a calculating and legal mindset but square his Sun at Leo 19, he was blinded to the powerful enemies he would make believing that his position was enough to protect him. He was right in his belief at the time, as the Cartel had never struck public figures, his was notable in being the first. But the inconjunct aspect, a bit wide it’s true, between the Moon in the 12th (natively Pisces) and Uranus at 21 Gemini in the 5th (and in its detriment), would have given some hint that things obscure in nature could lead to trouble or sorrow.
We assume a 9 am flight for the approximate time of death — but Kepler would not allow us to change Neiva for Bogota for a Tertiary Progression so those calculations are dodgy. Still Uranus is opposite the progressed Sun & Mercury conjunction showing that Lara was aware of the danger: particularly as the T-Square points to Neptune at the 9th conjunct the natal Neptune on the 8th cusp — fleeing the oncoming onslaught. But the problem was that with so much in the 11th house, his getaway was far too public and opposite it’s Lord in the 5th, fragile.
Flash forward to 2019
Mr. Rodrigo Lara’s son, Rodrigo Lara Jr. wants to exhume the body because he believes that there is something fishy about the murder according to Colombia Reports because who hired the hitman is still unknown.
The official version claimed that the shots that killed Lara were fired from a Medellin Cartel hitman driving a motorcycle on the right side of the car. Recent forensics result show that at least one of the shots that hit Lara was shot from the left and at short range (not as shown in Narcos from the right and the motorcycle). Furthermore, it’s unclear why the driver and Lara’s bodyguard left the vehicle unharmed when there were bullet marks on their seats.”
Colombia Reports, May 2016
In the meantime, the late Pedro Escobar’s son and Lara jr. have found some personal peace and moved on according to the UK Daily Mail.
Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel, the great couturier , was born on August 19, 1883 in Saumur France at 4 PM. Her ascendant is 30 Sagittarius, a secret business meeting, apropos for someone who held court with the Nazi SS during the Second World War. It is also conjunct the Galactic Center (26 Sagittarius), that imaginary point in our Milky Way that the Sun and the Moon and all the stars revolve around. It seems rather apropos. While Madame never married and had no children, her 5th house is populated with the various tools for her creation: Mars (cutting fabric, the precision of a tailor), Saturn (her classic style) and Pluto (transforming sewing into high couture) in the Radiant House System that we are highlighting but not in the modern Koch (see both below).
Janus gives several, not many, charts with the software all highly rated for accuracy and almost just as many house systems. I picked hers because I thought it good choice with the unknown “Radiant” system, not knowing what I would get. She is not part of the Jones 1000, and I think that is serious miss. About the Radiant, Janus writes
The Radiant House system (B) 1st=Anti-Vertex, 10th=Mc. It is the same as HORIZONTAL and Zenith house systems. The horizontal circle is cut at 30 deg intervals starting at the East Point of the horizon, and they are projected onto the ecliptic using vertical circles. Its origin is unknown. Note: Only suitable for latitudes between 24 and 90 degrees.
Prince Harry’s official birth time was used for this chart. I thought of it today as for Father’s Day Harry released a photo of him and Archie. I was surprised that GB was celebrating the same day as us, Australia celebrates it in September
Harry has a Capricorn ascendant in the 11th house, showing his tendency to be attracted to dark complexion women who are in the public eye, and we know how that worked out. Another striking this is how the Galactic Center is between his Mars and Neptune in Sagittarius, highlighting his military travels around the world, but also gives some credence to him and his wife wanting to leave England and live elsewhere where he will get more notice. Right now he is under the shadow of his brother, the future King, and his Mars near the Galactic Center shows that does not settle well with him.
Dr. Gordon cites that the ascendant Capricorn 12 tends to choose self-exile because of their aspiring and ambitious natures. Jones writes about that degree that it is a “student of nature learning and lecturing.” His Midheaven at 18 Scorpio, ruled by Mars only a semisextile away, is a “woods rich with autumnal coloring,” a definite remark about his looks, rich in golds and oranges. Jones writes that this degree desires success in every area of his life dramatizing it in the consummation of self-interest.
His NN is in Taurus gives him a physically affectionate personality but encourages his Mars in the 11th being inconjunct and making him jealous and envious according to Dr. Koparkar. It also gave him a close relationship with an overly protective mother and he would expect the same of his wife and mother of his children. His South Node in the 10th makes him an extrovert that resists control by others and a tendency despite logic to feel that he is the center of all situations around him. Hence with his Mars/Galactic Center semi sextile next door, he needs a partner that gets a lot of attention so he can eclipse that and feel securer adds Haydn Paul.
Alexis Smith of the Real Political Astrology group on Facebook found thru her detective work the birth time of Alexandria Ocasia y Cortez, the wunderkind of the Democratic party from psychic Arthur Lipp-Bonewits of 11:50 AM.
We do not agree with the rather suspicious time, but we use it in the chart above because it is better than the 12 noon standard that modern astrologers adore, but apply it to the whole house system. Her birthplace of the Bronx, New York, is of course unchanged.
The Greening of Sandy
So who is she? Well if you don’t know you’ve been sleeping under a rock for the past four months. She is hard to miss, everyday she is in the newswires, but in short, she is a 28-year-old former bartender cum Bernie Sanders organizer who is the youngest person to be elected to congress after unseating #3 Democrat Joe Crowley, (#1 is Chuck Schumer, #2 is Nancy and then there was Joe) with a progressive platform that called for a $15 minimum wage, Medicare for All, tuition-free public college, and the abolishment of ICE.
Meghan McCain, daughter of the late Senator John McCain, went apoplectic on The View, warning against Ocasio-Cortez’s “dangerous” policies. Ex-Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman, and good friend of Senator McCain, agrees and has a spitting match going on with her, for what he feels is the “future of the Party.”
Since getting sworn in, Ocasia-Cortez has incorporated her election winning platform in to the Green New Deal, a four part program for moving America quickly out of our climate crisis into a secure, sustainable future.
It is inspired by FDR’s New Deal programs that helped us out of the Great Depression of the 1930s, and is supported by the leader of the Green Party, Jill Green. Its aim to provide economic and climate relief by creating sustainable healthy and foremost just environment for everyone to work within.
With all that understood, we now turn to reviewing her chart using the whole house system because the time at hand is suspicious and at least gives us something to use.
In the Whole House System, everything in a house is conjunct, so in AOC’s chart, her ascendant and Venus are conjunct. It does not matter how far apart, what matters that it resides in the same sign, but the two together do show that AOC is rather vain with her Stila’s Stay All Day in Beso (a.k.a. “true red”) that does not budge, thanks to some interesting chemistry. It retails about $22.00. That is probably why Beso’s recommendation by fellow New Yorker and fellow Latina SCOTUS Judge Sonia Sotomayor was welcomed; she immediately loved the bright colours and flamboyant style.
Beso, which means “kiss” in Spanish, was one of the original 10 colors the company launched in 2012. and it’s the company’s No. 2 best-selling shade. But since it is so bright, it does give her also a rather vain image, hearkening to Eva Peron and her red lipstick both of them photographed typically with their black hair slicked emphasizing their features.
Going around the wheel, AOC’s next cardinal house, the fourth, is empty, telling us that this means little to her as she is more of an out and about person. Also right on the cusp in the fifth is the Moon in Aries bestowing a wild temper particularly when challenged because of her drive and strong need for self-assertion.
This Moon placement is an important aspect in her chart, because it makes Ocasia-Cortez planetary temperament type a bucket with a moon handle — that handle leads her where she wants to go. As the moon rules intuition & feelings when not in high focus but as the handle, it’s meaning and effect on her chart changes. Instead of just emotional intuition, the Moon in AOC’s chart becomes an “intensifier” that takes all the various circumstances and activities that occur in her and intensifies their meaning and through this action Ocasia-Cortez gets to her next destination. She does not deliberate about her career path, but instead sees an opening and jumps on it — following her gut, secure in the knowledge it will not steer her wrong but OTOH there is nothing within her own psychological system to stop her.
Going counterclockwise on the wheel, the next cardinal spot is Gemini at the seventh house, also empty. This allows us to fill in our portrait of Ocasia Cortez as someone who is not much of a negotiator tending to go it alone, and rely more on her own resources. That is discordant though with her Part of Fortune right on its cusp at 28.45 Taurus (remembering that Jones rounds up) or 29 Taurus — the symbol of Two Cobblers working a table.
The Part of Fortune is one’s guiding light, and the symbol of Two Cobblers recommends instead synergy & not individuality — that her career success is dependent upon others. It also reinforces the age old adage from William Shakespeare’s play The Tempest that “Misery acquaints a man with strange bedfellows”, easily adapted to the political arena.
This symbol with the keyword “Capability” warns Rep. Ocasia Cortez that she needs to avoid frittering away her talents on every fish in the sea and instead focus. The final cardinal spot, the tenth house, under the whole house is not necessarily the Midheaven but neither does she have any planets there, so while she has a plethora of Cardinal Signs they are not in cardinal houses.
Returning to the beginning, we move onto the succedent houses that are traditionally assigned to fixed houses. In Ocasia Cortez’s chart, the second house has three Cardinal planets gathered within its borders. In the center of the group is Saturn found in his essential Lord Capricorn opposite Jupiter that Marc Jones marks as an especial aspect, the Aspect of Social Significance.
Jones in his “Essentials of Astrological Significance” when in opposition is an ordering of the person’s motives through which the native tends to dramatize himself, something we already noted with her red lipstick and slicked hair, and results in a grand “expenditure of personal resources” that can create a caricature of themselves that lessens their achievements or efforts.
In the last quadrant, a great preponderance of planets appears with Mercury leading the pack. Her Midheaven shows up near Mercury at 06.22 Libra. We find once again, lots of cardinal planets, in Fixed Houses, suggesting her willpower is strong and her determination to go the distance, but we have to reiterate Jones’s warning, as it gets crystallized in the eleventh house, assigned to the public, as long as her base encourages to do so.
Cadent wise, Pluto in Scorpio is the only activity that occurs in a mutable house. It supports the rest of the her chart making her more reliant on popular appeal than she or most realize. Pluto is also semisextile her ascendant in the first house, but this tells us more about her concern for personal privacy, and why nothing about her family, beliefs, upbringing or social ties are known; it has nothing to do about her career motivations other than a desire to work with established enterprises.
Again our thanks to Alexis for reaching out to Arthur. As for Alexandria, I am sure we’ll be hearing from her further as her career goes on because it is obvious her ambition has just begun to pick up speed.
We vet our pages constantly checking for mistakes, typos and factual errors. This page was updated on February 12, 2019.
Pelosi is still on the ropes and the opposition is TBA. Across the proverbial pond, Ms. May may not be as lucky for her Party controls her life line. The Ascendant this week is 27 Gemini, has a nice springtime theme of seven blue birds moving to another tree and transition is the byword. Maybe this is a bad harbinger for the ladies in waiting? Votes are still be exchanged and berths offered; its too soon to tell.
The twelfth house though is rocking. The Ascendant at 27 Scorpio to start the week off, giving us the Hyperion Symbol of “the Fate of the Old King.” McClung writes that there is a bright strand in human affairs that accepts that which is handed down through culture and society. His keyword is tradition and that does seem to be problem with both Mme. Pelosi and May, no one likes the tradition that they represent.
The Moon is at 18 Cancer in the eighth house while the Sun is travelling jauntily in Sagittarius in the 12th. Technically the Grand Trine is at Poseidon at 14 Scorpio going to Neptune at 14 Pisces and back to Mother Moon, but that may import more about the weather than the emotions this week. Still, it does hint that there are some lessons to be learnt from all this fracas but Uranus in Aries opposite Venus in Libra seems to be blocking them from being realized. Saturn the point focus of that menage a trois recommends patience but then it’s in its own power struggle with the Moon as the two lords seem to be rather uptight and before you know it a Grand Cardinal Cross has materialized and everything is locked down waiting for more resources.
So this week we have bucket with a Moon handle, nostalgically reminding us that we are in Elvis’s own Memphis and Graceland, our header shot, is just down the street. Perhaps we can catch him croon Blue Moon over Kentucky when he, like us, was young & green.
Memphis is a port of entry and the largest city of Tennessee, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Shelby county, on the Mississippi river, in the S.W. corner of the state. Pop. (1860), 22,623; (1870), 40,226; (1880), 33,592; (1890), 64,495; (1900), 102,320, of whom 5110 were foreign-born and 49,910 were Negroes; (1910 census) 131,105.
It is served by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the St Louis & San Francisco, the Illinois Central, the Southern, the Louisville & Nashville, the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis, the St Louis South-Western, the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern and the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley railways, and by steamboats on the Mississippi.
The river is spanned here by a cantilever railway bridge 1895 ft. long, completed in 1892. The city is finely situated on the fourth Chickasaw Bluffs, more than 40 ft. above high water; the streets are broad, well paved and pleasantly shaded; and a broad levee overlooks the river.
In Court Square, in the heart of the city, are many fine old trees and a bust of President Andrew Jackson who helped found the city. In 1909 Memphis had about 1000 acres of parks besides two race-courses. Memphis is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishopric. The city is supplied with water from more than eighty artesian wells, having an average depth of about 400 ft.
Owing to its situation at the head of deep water navigation on the Mississippi, Memphis has become a leading commercial city of the southern states; its trade in cotton, lumber, groceries, mules and horses is especially large.
Chickasaw Bluffs were named from the Chickasaw Indians, who were in possession when white men first came to the vicinity. Late in the 17th century the French built a fort on the site of Memphis, and during most of the 18th century this site was held either by the French or the Spanish. In 1797 it passed into the possession of the United States.
By a treaty of the 19th of October 1818, negotiated by General Andrew Jackson and General Isaac Shelby, the Chickasaws ceded all their claims east of the Mississippi, and early in 1819 Memphis was laid out in accordance with an agreement entered into by John Overton (1766-1833), Andrew Jackson and James Winchester (1752-1826), the proprietors of the land.
Its name was suggested from the similarity of its situation on the Mississippi to that of the Egyptian city on the Nile.
Memphis was incorporated as a town in 1827, and in 1849 was chartered as a city. Near Memphis, on the 6th of June 1862, a Union fleet of 9 vessels and 68 guns, under Commander Charles Henry Davis (1807-77), defeated a Confederate fleet of 8 vessels and 28 guns under Commander J. E. Montgomery after a contest of little more than one hour, three of the Confederate vessels being destroyed and four of them captured the city was then in possession of the Union forces. In August 1864, however, a Confederate force under General Nathaniel Bedford Forrest, who hailed from Chapel Hill, Tennessee 128 miles away, raided it and captured several hundred prisoners.
The decrease of population between 1870 and 1880 was due to the ravages of yellow fever in 1873, 1878 and 1879. The epidemic of 1873 resulted in over two thousand deaths, and that of 1878 in a total of 5150, of whom 4250 were whites and 900 Negroes. At the return of the fever in 1879 better care and strict quarantine arrangements prevailed, but there were 497 deaths. During the epidemics of 1878 and 1879 fully two-thirds of the population fled from the city, many of whom died of the fever at other places, and a still larger number did not return.
In 1891 a new city charter was, obtained, and in 1907 the “Houston plan” ) was adopted for Memphis by the state legislature. The act, however, was declared unconstitutional by the state supreme court, on the ground that it would force elected officers out of office before the expiration of their constitutional terms; and in 1909 a new charter on the Houston plan was adopted by the legislature, to become effective on the 1st of January 1910, providing for a government by five commissioners, each having charge of a separate department.
See J. M. Keating, History of the City of Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee (Syracuse, 1888); James Phelan, History of Tennessee (Boston, 1889).